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23.09.2008 » Het wordt warm in Hawaii: een bloemlezing (2)

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Aug;33(8):1385-6.

Ultraviolet exposure in the Ironman triathlon.

Moehrle M. Department of Dermatology, University of Tuebingen, Germany.

PURPOSE: Skin cancer is increasing worldwide and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is thought to be the most important environmental risk factor. People practicing outdoor sports are exposed to considerable amounts of UV radiation from the sun.

METHODS: Three triathletes participated in the Ironman Triathlon World Championships 1999 in Hawaii (3.9-km swim, 180.2-km bike, 42.4-km run). They attached Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (VioSpor) on the back between their shoulders. The dosimeter system measured cumulative biologically weighted erythemal UV exposure. UV exposure is given in minimal erythema doses (1 MED corresponds to 250 J x m(-2) at 298 nm).

RESULTS: The mean personal UV exposure was 8.3 MED (6.9--9.7 MED) after 8:43 to 9:44 h of competition corresponding to 0.8 to 1.3 MED x h(-1) (bike and run). The athletes were sunburned despite the use of water-resistant sunscreen (SPF 25+) on sun exposed skin.

CONCLUSION: The International Radiation Protection Agency has issued guidelines for professional UV exposure. Ironman triathletes considerably exceeded these limits of exposure similar to other outdoor sports. Professional and amateur athletes should be aware of hazards caused by UV radiation. Adequate protection by water-resistant sunscreens and clothing as well as training and competition schedules with low sun exposure seem to be a reasonable recommendation.

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Een mens zou voor minder aan triatlon gaan doen...

Arch Dermatol. 2006 Nov;142(11):1471-4.

Malignant melanoma in marathon runners.

Ambros-Rudolph CM, Hofmann-Wellenhof R, Richtig E, Müller-Fürstner M, Soyer HP, Kerl H. Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

BACKGROUND: Marathon running has surged in popularity; it is generally believed to be healthy, but may be associated with medical risks. Over the past decade, we observed 8 ultramarathon runners with malignant melanoma. UV exposure, immunosuppression due to long-term intensive exercise, or both have been discussed as potential triggers in these patients. To further evaluate risk factors for malignant melanoma in marathon runners, we examined anamnestic, phenotypic, sun-related, and clinical variables in 210 athletes and compared them with those of an age- and sex-matched control group.

OBSERVATIONS: Although control subjects exhibited higher sun sensitivity and more common melanocytic nevi, marathon runners presented with more atypical melanocytic nevi, solar lentigines, and lesions suggestive of nonmelanoma skin cancer. These findings correlated with increasing training intensity. During exercising, most runners wore shorts (96.7%) and shirts (98.6%) that would not or would only partially cover their back and extremities. Regular use of sunscreen was reported in only 56.2% of runners.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with a representative control group, marathon runners presented with an increased risk for malignant melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. They should reduce UV exposure during exercising by choosing training and competition schedules with low sun exposure, wearing adequate clothing, and regularly using water-resistant sunscreens.

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Mannen weten waarom.


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