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04.02.2008 » What?s in a name (part 2): ?Stretching?, een rekbaar begrip

De discussie of stretching sportblessures kan helpen voorkomen bestaat vermoedelijk al langer dan de praktijk van het stretchen zelf. Het hangt er echter vanaf wat men onder ?stretching? verstaat...

Sports Med. 2007;37(12):1089-99.

Warm-up and stretching in the prevention of muscular injury.

Woods K, Bishop P, Jones E.

Human Performance Laboratory, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA.

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Muscular injury is one of the major problems facing today's athletes, both
recreational and professional. Injuries to skeletal muscle represent >30% of the injuries seen in sports medicine clinics. As a result, it is imperative to utilise the most effective means to aid in deterring these injuries. However,
there are conflicting opinions regarding methods of reducing muscular injury through warm-up and stretching techniques.Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the potential of a warm-up and/or stretching routine in deterring muscular injury during physical activity. The article examines a variety of studies regarding warm-up, stretching and muscular injury. The article also provides a definition of warm-up and stretching to provide clarity on this topic. Many of the differences within previous research were due to conflicting definitions. We also address this issue by examining research on muscular injury and physical adaptations to muscular injury and training.This article provides contradictory evidence to conclusions that have been drawn in previous review articles, which determined that warm-up and/or stretching protocols did not deter injury. The research included here conveys that certain techniques and protocols have shown a positive outcome on deterring injuries. As a result, a warm-up and stretching protocol should be implemented prior to physical activity. The routine should allow the stretching protocol to occur within the 15 minutes immediately prior to the activity in order to receive the most benefit. In addition, current information regarding improvements in flexibility is reviewed.

Het is duidelijk (cfr. supra) dat stretching onder bepaalde voorwaarden blessurepreventief kan werken. Op basis van de beschikbare literatuur zou men zelfs kunnen stellen: ?baat het niet, dan schaadt het niet?. Méér zelfs: als het al geen blessures voorkomt, dan verbetert het ? om godweetwelke reden dan ook ? misschien zelfs ?gewoon? het prestatievermogen...

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Oct;39(10):1825-31.

Chronic static stretching improves exercise performance.

Kokkonen J, Nelson AG, Eldredge C, Winchester JB.

Exercise and Sport Science Department, Brigham Young University-Hawaii, Laie, HI,

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PURPOSE: This study investigated the influence of static stretching exercises on specific exercise performances.
METHODS: Thirty-eight volunteers participated in this study. The stretching group (STR) consisted of 8 males and 11 females whose activity was limited to a 10-wk, 40-min, 3-d.wk(-1) static stretching routine designed to stretch all the major muscle groups in the lower extremity. The control group (CON) consisted of 8 males and 11 females who did not participate in any kind of regular exercise routine during the study. Each subject was measured before and after for flexibility, power (20-m sprint, standing long jump, vertical jump), strength (knee flexion and knee extension one-repetition maximum (1RM)), and strength endurance (number of repetitions at 60% of 1RM for both knee flexion and knee extension).
RESULTS: STR had significant average improvements (P < 0.05) for flexibility (18.1%), standing long jump (2.3%), vertical jump (6.7%), 20-m sprint (1.3%), knee flexion 1RM (15.3%), knee extension 1RM (32.4%), knee flexion endurance (30.4%) and knee extension endurance (28.5%). The control group showed no improvement.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that chronic static stretching exercises by themselves can improve specific exercise performances. It is possible that persons who are unable to participate in traditional strength training activities may be able to experience gains through stretching, which would allow them to transition into a more traditional exercise regimen.

Statisch, niet-verend dus, stretchen gedurende 10 weken bleek op zich voldoende om niet alleen de lenigheid te doen toenemen, het verbeterde ook het prestatievermogen op tal van vlakken, zónder dat enige andere vorm van training plaatsvond !
Stretching, het lijkt wel een wondermiddel ! Of bestaat dat soort van zaken toch niet?

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD004577.

Stretching to prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise.

Herbert RD, de Noronha M.

University of Sydney, School of Physiotherapy, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW,
Australia, 1825. R.Herbert@fhs.usyd.edu.au

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BACKGROUND: Many people stretch before or after (or both) engaging in athletic activity. Usually the purpose is to reduce risk of injury, reduce soreness after exercise, or enhance athletic performance.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to determine effects of stretching before or after exercise on the development of post-exercise muscle soreness.
SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (to April 2006), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to May 2006), EMBASE (1988 to May 2006), CINAHL (1982 to May 2006), SPORTDiscus (1949 to May 2006), PEDro (to May 2006) and reference lists of articles.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible studies were randomised or quasi-randomised studies of any pre-or post-exercise stretching technique designed to prevent or treat delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), provided the stretching was conducted soon before or soon after exercise. To be eligible studies must have assessed muscle soreness or tenderness.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group's methodological quality assessment tool. Estimates of effects of stretching were converted to a common 100-point scale. Outcomes were pooled in a fixed-effect meta-analysis.
MAIN RESULTS: Of the 10 included studies, nine were carried out in laboratory settings using standardised exercise protocols and one involved post-exercise stretching in footballers. All participants were young healthy adults. Three studies examined the effects of stretching before exercise and seven studies investigated the effects of stretching after exercise. Two studies, both of stretching after exercise, involved repeated stretching sessions at intervals of greater than two hours. The duration of stretching applied in a single session ranged from 40 to 600 seconds.All studies were small (between 10 and 30 participants received the stretch condition) and of questionable quality.The effects of stretching reported in individual studies were very small and there was a high degree of consistency of results across studies. The pooled estimate showed that pre-exercise stretching reduced soreness one day after exercise by, on average, 0.5 points on a 100-point scale (95% CI -11.3 to 10.3; 3 studies). Post-exercise stretching reduced soreness one day after exercise by, on average, 1.0 points on a 100-point
scale (95% CI -6.9 to 4.8; 4 studies). Similar effects were evident between half a day and three days after exercise.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence derived from mainly laboratory-based studies of stretching indicate that muscle stretching does not reduce delayed-onset muscle soreness in young healthy adults.

Als alle relevante en degelijke studies over het onderwerp naast elkaar worden gelegd, blijkt ?stretching ter preventie van spierstijfheid? naar fabeltjesland verwezen te moeten worden. De enige remedie tegen spierstijfheid is en blijft niet te hard trainen. Maar wat is ?niet te hard?? Niet hard genoeg om een zeker trainingseffect uit te lokken? De meeste atleten zijn vermoedelijk ook hard-horig voor dit soort van uitspraken... Wat is overigens ?hard trainen?? Jezelf eens lekker uitleven, het kan zo?n deugd doen ! En nadien gewoon stretchend nagenieten van de endorfines...


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