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15.01.2008 » What?s in a name (part 1): ?The Wall?

Eindelijk ! De man met de hamer werd voor het eerst in de geschiedenis aan een wetenschappelijk onderzoek onderworpen !

En wat blijkt?


Psychology of Sport and Exercise
Volume 9, Issue 2, March 2008, Pages 177-190

Hitting the wall in the marathon: Phenomenological characteristics and associations with expectancy, gender, and running history

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Matthew P. Buman, Britton W. Brewer , Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte and Albert J. Petitpas

Department of Psychology, Center for Performance Enhancement and Applied Research, Springfield College, Springfield, MA 01109, USA


Objectives
This study was designed to identify salient characteristics of hitting the wall in the marathon and to assess the frequency of self-reported occurrence of the wall as a function of expectancy, gender, and running history.
Design
A correlational research design was used.
Method
Participants (218 men and 97 women) from three Eastern Seaboard marathons in the United States responded to items regarding general demographic information and expectation of the wall prior to the marathon. After the marathon, participants were asked to report the occurrence of the wall, whether they experienced each of 24 potential characteristics of the wall, and the impact of these characteristics on performance.
Results
Approximately 43% of participants reported that they hit the wall during the marathon. Logistic regression analysis indicated that generalized fatigue, unintentionally slowing pace, desire to walk, and shifting focus to survival were salient characteristics of the wall. Logistic regression analyses indicated that male gender, expectancy of hitting the wall, shorter distance of longest training run, and previous episodes of hitting the wall were associated with reports of hitting the wall.
Conclusions
Several robust characteristics of the wall were identified. Occurrence of the wall phenomenon appears to be more prevalent among men than among women and may be influenced by expectancy.



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Maar liefst bijna de helft van de ondervraagde marathonlopers (van beginner tot doorwinterd) kwam blijkbaar de man met de hamer tegen ! Mannen, die hem verwachten tegen te komen, die hem al eens tegengekomen waren, en onvoldoende lange duurlopen in hun voorbereiding hadden opgenomen bleken een grotere kans te maken om het mannetje (nog) eens tegen het lijf te lopen. De vraag is echter: wat is een ?onvoldoende lange duurloop?? En de hamvraag is: wat verstaat men onder ?de man met de hamer??
De onderzoekers geven ons géén antwoord op de eerste, maar wel op de tweede vraag. Blijkt dat de man met de hamer wel vééééle gezichten kent !
Tssssss...
Onder het mom van ?de wetenschap? kan je ook àlles bewijzen, niet?



Reported characteristics of ?the wall?

Generalized fatigue
Loss of running form
Renegotiating performance standards/race goals
Muscle cramping or muscle pain
Unintentionally slowing pace
Difficulty breathing
Loss of concentration
Deliberate direction of attention away from race
Increased motivation
Increased effort
Clearer focus on race objectives
Confusion
Decreased motivation
Irritability
Lightheadedness
Decreased sense of pace
Nausea
Dehydration
Limb heaviness
Increasingly negative attitude
Desire to walk
Shifting focus to surviving race
Intentionally slowing pace
Desire to quit


 

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