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27.08.2007 » In de reeks "Wonderen der Natuur": tempogevoel

Ooit al eens stilgestaan bij het begrip "tempogevoel"?
Waarom kiest een atleet bij aanvang van training of wedstrijd een bepaald tempo? Wat maakt dat dit tempo bijgestuurd of aangehouden wordt?

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Voor de wetenschapper is het nu al duidelijk dat het nog niet duidelijk is,
Maar een complex gegeven,
Het zoveelste fenomeen waarin ?body & brain? elkaar de hand reiken,
Het zoveelste bewijs dat sportprestaties niet louter een akt zijn van ge´soleerde fast- en slow-twitch fibers.



Sports Med. 2007;37(4-5):374-7.

The central governor model of exercise regulation applied to the marathon.

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Noakes TD.

Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of
South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa. timothy.noakes@uct.ac.za


Two popular models hold that performance during exercise is limited by chemical
factors acting either in the exercising muscles or in the brain producing either
'peripheral' or 'central' fatigue, respectively. A common feature of both models
is that neither allows humans to 'anticipate' what will happen in the future and
modify their exercise response accordingly. The peripheral fatigue model predicts
that exercise terminates only after there has been catastrophic failure in one or
more body systems and only when all the available motor units in the active
muscles have been activated. The marathon race provides evidence that human
athletes race 'in anticipation' by setting a variable pace at the start,
dependent in part on the environmental conditions and the expected difficulty of
the course, with the capacity to increase that pace near the finish. Marathoners
also finish such races without evidence for a catastrophic failure of homeostasis
characterised by the development of a state of absolute fatigue in which all the
available motor units in their active muscles are recruited. These findings are
best explained by the action of a central (brain) neural control that regulates
performance in the marathon 'in anticipation' specifically to prevent biological
harm.



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En de trainer beaamt.
Tot zijn somtijds grote frustratie
Lijkt niet elke atleet in staat zijn vermoedelijke potentieel op wedstrijd tot uiting te kunnen brengen...
Is tempogevoel van eenzelfde orde als water- en taalgevoel,
Iets van ?jong geleerd is oud gedaan??
Of is ?tempogevoel? niet louter een kwestie van (lichamelijke) ?zelfkennis?,
Maar eerder zaak van ?zelfvertrouwen? of van ?lef??



Sports Med. 2007;37(4-5):404-7.

The psychology of the marathoner: of one mind and many.

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Raglin JS.

Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA.
raglinj@indiana.edu


The unique physiological attributes of marathoners have long been recognised, but
until the pioneering research of Morgan and Pollock (1977) little was known about
their psychological characteristics. Their work revealed marathoners have
significantly better mental health compared with non-athletes, with desirable
mental health variables being most pronounced in elite competitors. It was also
found that during competition, elite marathoners typically utilise a unique
cognitive strategy labelled 'association', whereby they regulate pace based upon
bodily sensations including pain and effort. More recent research indicates there
are considerable individual differences in the psychological responses of
marathoners to the stressors associated with training and competition, and in
some cases negative emotions traditionally presumed to be harmful actually
benefit performance. This brief review will highlight findings of psychological
research involving marathoners and other endurance athletes, distinguishing
between characteristics common among groups (i.e. nomothetic) with those
particular to individuals (i.e. ideographic) or sub-groups of elite and non-elite
competitors.



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De filosoof werpt echter op:
Waar eindigt ?zelfkennis? en waar begint ?zelfvertrouwen??
Wie trekt de flinterdunne grens in onderlinge kruisbestuiving?
Wat is de kip en wat is het ei?



Sports Med. 2006;36(8):705-22.

The role of information processing between the brain and peripheral physiological systems in pacing and perception of effort.

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St Clair Gibson A, Lambert EV, Rauch LH, Tucker R, Baden DA, Foster C, Noakes TD.

Brain Sciences Research Group, MRC/UCT Research Unit of Exercise Science and
Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
agibson@sports.uct.ac.za


This article examines how pacing strategies during exercise are controlled by
information processing between the brain and peripheral physiological systems. It
is suggested that, although several different pacing strategies can be used by
athletes for events of different distance or duration, the underlying principle
of how these different overall pacing strategies are controlled is similar.
Perhaps the most important factor allowing the establishment of a pacing strategy
is knowledge of the endpoint of a particular event. The brain centre controlling
pace incorporates knowledge of the endpoint into an algorithm, together with
memory of prior events of similar distance or duration, and knowledge of external
(environmental) and internal (metabolic) conditions to set a particular optimal
pacing strategy for a particular exercise bout. It is proposed that an internal
clock, which appears to use scalar rather than absolute time scales, is used by
the brain to generate knowledge of the duration or distance still to be covered,
so that power output and metabolic rate can be altered appropriately throughout
an event of a particular duration or distance. Although the initial pace is set
at the beginning of an event in a feedforward manner, no event or internal
physiological state will be identical to what has occurred previously. Therefore,
continuous adjustments to the power output in the context of the overall pacing
strategy occur throughout the exercise bout using feedback information from
internal and external receptors. These continuous adjustments in power output
require a specific length of time for afferent information to be assessed by the
brain's pace control algorithm, and for efferent neural commands to be generated,
and we suggest that it is this time lag that crates the fluctuations in power
output that occur during an exercise bout. These non-monotonic changes in power
output during exercise, associated with information processing between the brain
and peripheral physiological systems, are crucial to maintain the overall pacing
strategy chosen by the brain algorithm of each athlete at the start of the
exercise bout.



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De wetenschapper, de trainer en de filosoof komen echter overeen:
Sportprestaties
Gaan niet alleen over keihard trainen
Het gaat niet alleen over keihard willen en k˙nnen trainen
Het gaat ook niet over keihard willen en k˙nnen trainen op het gepaste moment
Sportprestaties
Gaan over tempogevoel
Over tempo?s kennen en tempo?s zoeken
Maar ook over gevoel en ?feeling?,
Misschien wel over intu´tie en zelfs instincten,
Overleven
Over evenwichten en ? in Baelus?woorden ? harmonie,
Ritme,
Over leven.


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